Category Archives: Family Finance Law

New Law Makes Big Changes to Retirement Plans

January 22, 2020

President Trump has signed a spending bill that makes major changes to retirement plans. The new law is designed to provide more incentives to save for retirement, but it may require workers to rethink some of their planning.

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act changes the law surrounding retirement plans in several ways:

  • Stretch IRAS. The biggest change eliminates “stretch” IRAs. Under the previous law, if you named anyone other than a spouse as the beneficiary of your IRA, the beneficiary could choose to take distributions over his or her lifetime and to pass what is left onto future generations (called the “stretch” option). The required minimum distributions were calculated based on the beneficiary’s life expectancy. This allowed the money to grow tax-deferred over the course of the beneficiary’s life and to be passed on to his or her own beneficiaries. The SECURE Act requires non-spouse beneficiaries of an IRA to withdraw all the money in the IRA within 10 years of the IRA holder’s death. In many cases, these withdrawals would take place during the beneficiary’s highest tax years, meaning that the elimination of the stretch IRA is effectively a tax increase on many Americans. This provision will apply to those who inherit IRAs starting on January 1, 2020.
  • Required minimum distributions. Under prior law, you have to begin taking distributions from your IRAs beginning when you reach age 70 ½. Under the new law, individuals who are not 70 ½ at the end of 2019 can now wait until age 72 to begin taking distributions.
  • Contributions. The new law allows workers to continue to contribute to an IRA after age 70 ½, which is the same as rules for 401(k)s and Roth IRAs.
  • Employers. The tax credit businesses get for starting a retirement plan is increased and the new law makes it easier for small businesses to join multiple-employer plans.
  • Annuities. The newly enacted legislation removes roadblocks that made employers wary of including annuities in 401(k) plans by eliminating some of the fiduciary requirements used to vet companies and products before they can be included in a plan.
  • Withdrawals. The new law allows an early withdrawal of up to $5,000 from a retirement account without a penalty in the event of the birth of a child or an adoption. Currently, there is a 10 percent penalty for early withdrawals in most circumstances.

Given these changes, workers need to immediately reevaluate their estate plans. Some people have used stretch IRAs as an estate planning tool to pass assets to their children and grandchildren. One way of doing this has been to name a trust as the IRA’s beneficiary, and these trusts may have to be reformed to conform to the new rules. If a stretch IRA is part of your estate plan, consult with your attorney to determine if you need to make changes.

To read the legislation, click here.  For more on the new law, click here and here.

What the Secure Act is All About

January 22, 2020

by Harry S. Margolis Esq.

As part of the spending bill that recently passed Congress, effective January 1, 2020, new retirement plan rules will apply. They included in the Secure Act, which is an acronym standing for Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement. A big part of the bill encourages small employers to band together to offer retirement plans, which is the reason for the title. But here’s what may affect you and your family.

  1. Later Required Beginning Age. For those who have not already reached age 70 1/2 by the end of 2019 (meaning they were born on or before June 30, 1949), they can delay taking their required minimum distributions until the April 1st of the year they reach 72, rather than 70 1/2. If you were born after June 30, 1949, you can still choose to withdraw without penalty, other than paying taxes on the amount withdrawn, any time after age 59 1/2, you just don’t have to do so quite as early.
  2. A Shorter Time Period for Withdrawing from Inherited IRAs. Up until now, anyone who inherited a retirement plan who was not a spouse of the deceased owner had to begin taking minimum distributions the following year, but could take them out based on their own life expectancy, meaning that a younger person could stretch out the withdrawals and enjoy the tax deferral for many years. Under the new rules, with some exceptions, inherited IRAs must now be entirely withdrawn within 10 years of the death of the initial owner. This restrictions only applies to those retirement plans inherited after this year.
  3. The Exceptions. The New Inherited IRA rules don’t apply to spouses of the deceased owner who can continue to convert inherited IRAs to their own ownership. In addition, there are exceptions for:
    • minor children,
    • individuals with disabilities and chronic illnesses, and
    • those who are less than 10 years younger than the original owner.

    The exception may also apply to special needs trusts.

  4. You Can Keep Contributing if You Keep Working. Under the old rules, those over age 70 1/2 who continued to work could continue to contribute to their work-related 401(k) plans Roth IRAs but not to their own IRAs. Now they can continue to contribute to traditional IRAs as well. Of course, after age 72 this creates the interesting situation of continuing to contribute at the same time you’re required to withdraw.

The New Rules and Trusts

While these new rules effect no changes for planning with respect to spouses, they may for children and others. Some parents provide for continuing trusts for their children and grandchildren in order to provide creditor or divorce protection or for special needs planning purposes. These are drafted as “accumulation” or “conduit” trusts under complex retirement plan rules. The new rules won’t affect “accumulation” trusts, but some parents may want to change their “conduit” trusts.

“Conduit” trusts get their name because they provide that any required minimum distributions from retirement plans held by the trusts must be distributed annually to the beneficiaries. Parents may have agreed to this provision knowing that such distributions will be relatively small each year since they’re stretched out over the beneficiary’s lifetime. In some instances, they may not want larger distributions made during the first 10 years after their deaths, as would be required as the trusts are currently drafted.

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, unanticipated results will arise as the new rules affect real-life situations. We’ll continue to better understand the impact of the new rules and let you know how the work. Also, don’t hesitate to be in touch or post any questions you might have. We’ll do our best to find answers.

Feds Release 2020 Guidelines Used to Protect the Spouses of Medicaid Applicants

January 22, 2020

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has released the 2020 federal guidelines for how much money the spouses of institutionalized Medicaid recipients may keep, as well as related Medicaid figures.

In 2020, the spouse of a Medicaid recipient living in a nursing home (called the “community spouse”) may keep as much as $128,640 without jeopardizing the Medicaid eligibility of the spouse who is receiving long-term care. Known as the community spouse resource allowance or CSRA, this is the most that a state may allow a community spouse to retain without a hearing or a court order. While some states set a lower maximum, the least that a state may allow a community spouse to retain in 2020 will be $25,728.

Meanwhile, the maximum monthly maintenance needs allowance (MMMNA) for 2020 will be $3,216. This is the most in monthly income that a community spouse is allowed to have if her own income is not enough to live on and she must take some or all of the institutionalized spouse’s income. The minimum monthly maintenance needs allowance for the lower 48 states remains $2,113.75 ($2,641.25 for Alaska and $2,432.50 for Hawaii) until July 1, 2020.

In determining how much income a particular community spouse is allowed to retain, states must abide by this upper and lower range. Bear in mind that these figures apply only if the community spouse needs to take income from the institutionalized spouse. According to Medicaid law, the community spouse may keep all her own income, even if it exceeds the maximum monthly maintenance needs allowance.

The new spousal impoverishment numbers (except for the minimum monthly maintenance needs allowance) take effect on January 1, 2020.

For a more complete explanation of the community spouse resource allowance and the monthly maintenance needs allowance, click here.

Home Equity Limits:

In 2020, a Medicaid applicant’s principal residence will not be counted as an asset by Medicaid if the applicant’s equity interest in the home is less than $595,000, with the states having the option of raising this limit to $893,000.

For more on Medicaid’s home equity limit, click here.

Medicare Part D: A First Look at Prescription Drug Plans in 2020

December 24, 2019

courtesy of NAELA eBulletin:

During the Medicare open enrollment period  from October 15 to December 7 each year, beneficiaries can enroll in a plan that provides Part D drug coverage, either a stand-alone prescription drug plan (PDP) as a supplement to traditional Medicare, or a Medicare Advantage prescription drug plan (MA-PD), which covers all Medicare benefits, including drugs.

Click here for the entire article and the issue brief

Medicaid’s Treatment of the Home

December 24, 2019

Nursing home residents do not automatically  have to sell their homes in order to qualify for Medicaid, but that doesn’t mean the house is completely protected. The state will likely put a lien on the house while the resident is living and attempt to recover the property after the resident has passed away.

Medicaid will not count a nursing home resident’s home as an asset when determining eligibility for Medicaid as long as the resident intends to return home (in some states, the nursing home resident must prove a likelihood of returning home). In addition, the resident’s equity interest in the home must be less than $585,000, with the states having the option of raising this limit to $878,000 (figures are adjusted annually for inflation; these are for 2019).

The equity value of the home is the fair market value minus any debts secured by the home, such as a mortgage or a home equity loan. For example, if your home has a fair market value of $400,000 and an outstanding mortgage of $100,000, the equity value is $300,000. Your equity interest depends on whether you own the home by yourself or with someone else.  If you own the home by yourself, your equity interest is the entire equity value.  If you own your home jointly with your spouse or someone else, your equity interest is only half of the home’s equity value.

The home equity rule does not apply if the Medicaid applicant’s spouse or a child who is under 21 or is blind or disabled lives in the home.

While the house may not need to be sold in order to qualify for Medicaid, state Medicaid agencies will likely place a lien on any real estate owned by a Medicaid beneficiary during his or her life. The state cannot impose a lien if a spouse, a disabled or blind child, a child under age 21, or a sibling with an equity interest in the house is living in the house.

Once a lien is placed on the property, if the property is sold while the Medicaid beneficiary is living, not only will the beneficiary cease to be eligible for Medicaid due to the cash from the sale, but the beneficiary would have to satisfy the lien by paying back the state for its coverage of care to date. In some states, the lien may be removed upon the beneficiary’s death. In other states, the state can collect on the lien after the Medicaid recipient dies. Check with your attorney to see how your local agency handles this.

Even if the state did not place a lien on the home during the Medicaid beneficiary’s life, the home may still be subject to estate recovery after the Medicaid recipient’s death, again depending on the state.

There are steps you can take to protect your home. Contact your attorney to learn more.

Home Care Costs Rise Sharply in Annual Long-Term Care Cost Survey

December 24, 2019

When it comes to long-term care costs, the charges for home care are now rising faster than those for nursing home care, according to Genworth’s 2019 Cost of Care survey. In the past year, the median annual cost for home health aides rose 4.55 percent to $52,624, while the median cost of a private nursing home room rose only 1.82 percent to $102,200.

Genworth reports that the median cost of a semi-private room in a nursing home is $90,155, up 0.96 percent from 2018, and the median cost of assisted living facilities rose 1.28 percent, to $4,051 a month. But home care services had sharper increases. The national median annual rate for the services of a home health aide rose from $22 to $23 an hour, and the cost of adult day care, which provides support services in a protective setting during part of the day, rose from $72 to $75 a day, up 4.17 percent annually.

Alaska continues to be the costliest state for nursing home care by far, with the median annual cost of a private nursing home room totaling $362,628. Oklahoma again was found to be the most affordable state, with a median annual cost of a private room of $67,525.

The 2019 survey, conducted by CareScout for the sixteenth straight year, was based on responses from more than 15,178 nursing homes, assisted living facilities, adult day health facilities and home care providers. Survey respondents were contacted by phone during May and June 2019.

As the survey indicates, long-term care is growing ever more expensive. Contact your elder law attorney to learn how you can protect some or all of your family’s assets from being swallowed up by these rising costs.

For more on Genworth’s 2019 Cost of Care Survey, including costs for your state, click here.

IRS Issues Long-Term Care Premium Deductibility Limits for 2020

December 24, 2019

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has announced the amount taxpayers can deduct from their 2020 income as a result of buying long-term care insurance.

Premiums for “qualified” long-term care insurance policies (see explanation below) are tax deductible to the extent that they, along with other unreimbursed medical expenses (including Medicare premiums), exceed 10 percent of the insured’s adjusted gross income.

These premiums — what the policyholder pays the insurance company to keep the policy in force — are deductible for the taxpayer, his or her spouse and other dependents. (If you are self-employed, the tax-deductibility rules are a little different: You can take the amount of the premium as a deduction as long as you made a net profit; your medical expenses do not have to exceed a certain percentage of your income.) Additionally, these tax deductions allowed by the IRS for long-term care insurance premiums are generally not available with so-called hybrid policies, such as life insurance and annuity policies with a long-term care benefit.

However, there is a limit on how large a premium can be deducted, depending on the age of the taxpayer at the end of the year. Following are the deductibility limits for tax year 2020. Any premium amounts for the year above these limits are not considered to be a medical expense.

Attained age before the close of the taxable year       Maximum deduction for year

40 or less                                                                                       $430

More than 40 but not more than 50                                         $810

More than 50 but not more than 60                                         $1,630

More than 60 but not more than 70                                         $4,350

More than 70                                                                                 $5,430

Another change announced by the IRS involves benefits from per diem or indemnity policies, which pay a predetermined amount each day. These benefits are not included in income except amounts that exceed the beneficiary’s total qualified long-term care expenses or $380 per day, whichever is greater.

For these and other inflation adjustments from the IRS, click here

What Is a “Qualified” Policy?

To be “qualified,” policies issued on or after January 1, 1997, must adhere to certain requirements, among them that the policy must offer the consumer the options of “inflation” and “nonforfeiture” protection, although the consumer can choose not to purchase these features. Policies purchased before January 1, 1997, will be grandfathered and treated as “qualified” as long as they have been approved by the insurance commissioner of the state in which they are sold.

The 2020 Social Security Increase Will Be Smaller than 2019’s

November 18, 2019

The Social Security Administration has announced a 1.6 percent increase in benefits in 2020, nearly half of last year’s change. The small rise has advocates questioning whether the government is using the proper method to calculate the cost of living for older Americans and those with disabilities.

Cost-of-living increases are tied to the consumer price index, and a modest upturn in inflation rates and gas prices means Social Security recipients will get only a small boost in 2020. The 1.6 percent increase is lower than last year’s 2.8 percent rise and the 2 percent increase in 2018. The average monthly benefit of $1,479 in 2019 will go up by $24 a month to $1,503 a month for an individual beneficiary, or $288 yearly.

The cost-of-living change also affects the maximum amount of earnings subject to the Social Security tax, which will grow from $132,900 to $137,700.

For 2020, the monthly federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payment standard will be $783 for an individual and $1,175 for a couple.

The smaller increase may mean that additional income will be entirely eaten up by higher Medicare Part B premiums. The standard monthly premium for Medicare Part B enrollees is forecast to rise $8.80 a month to $144.30. According to USA Today, advocates are questioning the method used to calculate cost-of-living increases. The Bureau of Labor Statistics uses the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers to set the inflation rate. This method looks at prices for gasoline, electronics, and other items that younger workers rely on. The advocates suggest using a different index (the Consumer Price Index for Elderly) that puts greater emphasis on medical and housing expenses.

Most beneficiaries will be able to find out their cost-of-living adjustment online by logging on to my Social Security in December 2019. While you will still receive your increase notice by mail, in the future you will be able to choose whether to receive your notice online instead of on paper.

For more on the 2020 Social Security benefit levels, click here.

What to Look for When Buying an Annuity

October 15, 2019

An annuity can be a useful tool for long-term care  planning, but annuities are also complex financial products that are hard to understand. If purchasing an annuity, you need to consider your options carefully.

An annuity is a contract with an insurance company under which the consumer pays the company a certain amount of money and the company sends the consumer a monthly check for the rest of his or her life, or for a certain term. Annuities come in many flavors. They can be deferred (begin paying out at a later date) or immediate (begin paying out right away). They can pay a fixed amount each month or pay out a variable amount based on how the money is invested. While a fixed immediate annuity can be a good Medicaid planning option for a married couple, other annuity products can be quite complex and confusing and are not right for everyone.

If you have decided an annuity is the right choice for your long-term care or retirement plan, you need to shop around to find the right product. The following are some purchasing tips:

    • Check the terms. Be sure to read the annuity contract carefully. Annuities often have surrender charges that penalize you for withdrawing your money too early. You need to understand for how long you won’t be able to access your money and when payouts begin. There may also be other fees associated with the annuity as well as optional riders. Understanding the fees will allow you to shop around to find the best product.
    • Choose your salesperson. Insurance companies often pay generous commissions to the brokers who sell their particular annuities, payments that many of the brokers don’t disclose. They also generally don’t disclose whether they are paid more or less by one insurance company than another or whether the annuity being sold is the best option for the consumer. Ask your broker questions to determine how they are paid. You may want to seek a second opinion to make sure your salesperson isn’t steering you into a product that isn’t right for you.
    • Select a sound insurance company. Annuity payments are often supposed to last a lifetime, so you want an insurance company that will stick around. Make certain that the insurer is rated in the top two categories by one of the services that rates insurance companies, such as A.M. Best, Moody’s, Standard & Poor’s, or Weiss.

Most Are Taking Social Security at the Wrong Time

October 15, 2019

A new report finds that almost no retirees are  making financially optimal decisions about when to take Social Security and are losing out on more than $100,000 per household in the process. The average Social Security recipient would receive 9 percent more income in retirement if they made the financially optimal decision.

When claiming Social Security, you have three options: You may begin taking benefits between age 62 and your full retirement age, you can wait until your full retirement age, or you can delay benefits and take them anytime up until you reach age 70. If you take Social Security between age 62 and your full retirement age, your benefits will be reduced to account for the longer period you will be paid. If you delay taking retirement, depending on when you were born, your eventual benefit will increase by 6 to 8 percent for every year that you delay, in addition to any cost-of-living increases.

The new report, conducted by United Income, an online investment management and financial planning firm, found that only 4 percent of retirees make the financially optimal decision about when to claim Social Security. Nearly all of the retirees not optimizing their benefits are claiming benefits too early. The study found that 57 percent of retirees would build more wealth if they waited to claim until age 70. However, currently more than 70 percent of retirees claim benefits before their full retirement age. Claiming before full retirement is the financially best option for only 6.5 percent of retirees, according to United Income.

The consequences of claiming Social Security too early can be big. The report found that collecting benefits at the wrong time causes retirees to collectively lose $3.4 trillion in potential income (an average of $111,000 per household). The report also estimates that elderly poverty could be cut in half if retirees claimed benefits at the financially optimal time.

One reason most people do not optimize Social Security is because waiting to collect benefits means their overall wealth may fall during their 60s and 70s. They also may not be aware that collecting benefits before full retirement age means that their benefits will be permanently reduced. According to the report’s authors, policy changes are necessary to get retirees to wait to claim benefits. The report recommends that early claiming be made the exception and reserved for those who have a demonstrable need to collect early. Another recommendation is to change the label on early retirement and call it the “minimum benefit age.”

To read the full report, click here.

For a CBS News article on the report, click here.